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Learning how to learn summary


​Focused mode vs diffuse mode
Foused mode when you concentrate on something you want to learn. It's like focusing your flashlight in one specific area.
Advantage It will strongly focus on one area of your brain and recently known facts
Disadvantage  But it will not focus on other area of your brain
Diffuse mode  is when you are in relaxed state not thinking about anything. It's like flashlight that casts it's light very broadly, but not very strongly in any one area.
How to use diffuse mode
When you are solving a tough problem for a long time stop your focus on the problem be in a relaxed state and do another work like walking, take a shower, or talk to a friend etc., after sometime you will get some ideas to solve a problem
Some important points
If you are learning something new don't try to learn it in a day, learn little everyday
After learning and a night's sleep you are not the same person you are in yesterday
Many new synapses (connections) are formed on the dendrites of neurons when you learn something new
A million billion synapses(connections) are there in the brain
When you want to do some task but you procratinated that, first step you need start that task and use pomodoro technique to accomplish that task ( search on google how to use pomodoro).
Practice makes permanent
If you are learning something new for first time you will remember only some information but after repeated learning of several days you will remember more information
Introduction to Memory
Working Memory 
It is like a black board, but not very clear.
We have to keep repeating the information to hold in working memory
Working memory holds only 4 items in the form of chunking
Ex phone number - 222-333-333 We remember phone number in the form of chunks
Longterm Memory 
It is like storage ware house, we can store billions of data
When we first try to put a information on long term memory you need to revisit it atleast few times to increase the chances that you'll be able to find it later when you might need it
How to store information in longterm Memory
Through Practice and repetition over a number of days ( spaced repetiton )
Sleep in learning
Being awake creates toxic products in your brain
With this toxins you can't think very clearly
When you sleep your brain cells shrink which allows toxins to be more easily washed away
During sleep, it erases the less important parts of memories and strengthen areas that you need or want to remember
It rehearsas tougher parts of whatever you are trying to learn, going over and over neural patterns to deepen and strengthen them
Also, you can figure out difficult problems and to understand what you're trying to learn during sleep
Some important points for learning
Exercise - increases the number of neurons being born and survive. Exercise helps improve your memory
Learn by doing is Active learning
Passionate and persistence
Not giving up


What is a chunk ?
Chunking is taking a large amounts of information, break them in to smaller chunks and then grouped together
In other words taking smaller bits of information and combine them into more meaningful and therefore more memorable, wholes
Focused, practice and repetition,the creation of strong memory traces, helps you to create chunks
How to form a chunk ?
Focus is important to form a chunk.
Focus activates four working memory slots to connect what you have already known topics with new topics you are learning. You want to give undivided attention to what you are studying to work four slots of working memory. When you are seeing a tv or listening to a music while you're studying, some of the working memory slots will not work.
Note Focus not work while you're in angry, stressed or afraid
When you're studying a new concept understand the basic idea
There is bottom-up chunking approach where you can practice and repeat each chunks
Also we have top-down "big-picture" approach where we can see overview of what we are trying to learn
Both bottom-up and top-down approach plays a major role in learning
Chunking involves how to solve a certain problem technique and context shows when to solve that problem
Ineffective method of learning
When you have completed reading a book you think you need to reread a book to remember but it is ineffective method of learning
What is the best effective method of learning
After completed reading a book, just look away from the book and Recall what you have learned. This is the effective method for learning
Illusions of Competence
When you're looked a solution for already known topic in the Book or Google your mind fools you by thinking the solution is already in the brain. The best way to avoid your mind fooling you is test yourself by Recalling what you have learned. Try to Recall it in different locations.
The value of a library of chunks
If you're good at chunking on one subject, you can find similar chunks on other subjects
  • concepts and problem solving methods you learned for physics, can be very similar to chunked concepts in business
The good library of chunks helpful in problem solving and also for generating new ideas

If you continue study or practice after you've mastered the material is called overleaning. Overleaning a material leads to automacity. It also brings the illusions of competence but you mastered the easy stuff. Intead of focus on easy stuff, Deliberate practice on the difficult material.

Einstellung - mindset or roadblock
Your initial single thought, an idea you already have in mind may prevent a better idea (or) solution from being found.Switch back and forth between subjects will bring you creative ideas.

Interleaving is a procedure where students mix or interleave multiple subjects to improve learning. If you study single subject for a long time it won't bring any creative ideas. 


Build a habit to tackle the procrastination. There are four important things to form a habit
1) cue 
  • Location
  • Time
  • How you feel
  • Reaction
Cue is what triggers the habit
2) The routine
  • Plan
3) The reward
4) The belief
Focus on the process not the product ( not the outcome )
  • Make a daily to-do list
  • Write a to-do list before going bed


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